Tactical communications are communications in which information of any kind, especially orders and decisions, are conveyed from one command, person, or place to another within tactical forces. In modern times, this is usually done by electronic means. Before the time of electronic equipment the way of communicating on the battlefield was to use either drums, trumpets or flags. Each sound or banner would then have a significance for the soldier who would respond accordingly. Communication between armies were of course much more difficult before the electronic age and could only be achieved with messengers on horseback or by foot and with time delays according to the distance the messenger needed to travel.
Troposcatter systems were developed in the 1950â€™s for point to point communications beyond line of sight (over the horizon) between remote geographic areas where microwave and cable links were not feasible. Troposcatter transmission depends on forward scattering of the radio signal in the troposphere, the lower portion of the earthâ€™s atmosphere. Troposcatter transmission depends on high power transmitters and sensitive receivers as the forward scatter path loss is quite high compared to conventional microwave line of sight systems. The hallmark of troposcatter radio systems is their long distance operation, beyond the horizon or beyond line of sight, and their dependence on the earthâ€™s atmosphere.
Riot control refers to the measures used by police, military, or other security forces to control, disperse, and arrest civilians who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest. Law enforcement officers or soldiers have long used less lethal weapons such as batons and whips to disperse crowds and detain rioters.
A run-flat tire is a pneumatic vehicle tire that is designed to resist the effects of deflation when punctured, and to enable the vehicle to continue to be driven at reduced speeds (up to 55 mph (90 km/h)), and for limited distances of up to 100 mi (160 km), or even 200 mi (320 km) depending on the type of tire.